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Advanced Care for Prostate Cancer

Nearly all types of prostate cancer start in the cells of the prostate gland, which make prostate fluid. These types of cancer are called adenocarcinomas, and are the most common type of prostate cancer. Other types of cancer can also start in the prostate such as small cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and sarcoma—though those types are rare. Noncancerous (benign) growths in the prostate include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In most cases, prostate cancer is found before it has spread to other parts of the body so it can be easier to treat and cure than other types.

Prostate Cancer Screening

Patients are encouraged to ask their cancer specialist if they should have a prostate cancer screening. Screening may allow a cancer specialist to detect and treat prostate cancer while it is still in its early stages. In some cases, prostate cancer may only need to be monitored. During a screening, a cancer specialist usually:

  • Performs a physical examination. The specialist examines the prostate gland, checking for abnormalities in texture, shape, and size.
  • Orders and analyzes a prostate-specific antigen test (PSA). Blood is drawn and analyzed for PSA, a natural substance produced by the prostate gland. High levels of PSA may indicate prostate cancer.

Further tests may be ordered if prostate cancer is suspected:

  • Core needle biopsy. A prostate tissue sample is collected and sent to the laboratory. A pathologist looks for cancer cells in the sample.
  • Ultrasound. A probe is gently placed near the prostate gland and sends sound waves to create a picture for the specialist to look at.

If a prostate cancer diagnosis is made, the specialist then determines how aggressive the cancer is. A bone scan, computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, or positron emission tomography (PET) scan may be ordered to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Once an official diagnosis is made, an appropriate prostate cancer treatment plan is prescribed.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Active surveillance. Sometimes prostate cancer does not need to be treated immediately. Active surveillance, which consists of regular physical examinations, PSA tests, and possibly core needle biopsies, may be used to monitor cancer progression and let the specialist know if/when treatment is needed.

Active surveillance may be recommended when prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, does not produce symptoms, is expected to progress slowly, or confined only to a small area.

Radiation Therapy. High energy beams are used to kill cancer cells. There are two types of radiation therapy. With external radiation, a machine is used to deliver radiation to the cells. With brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are placed in prostate tissue and slowly deliver low-dose radiation.

Surgery. Prostate cancer surgery or prostatectomy involves removing the prostate gland and possibly some surrounding tissues and nearby lymph nodes. There are several options your treatment team may recommend including prostate cancer surgery that can be performed minimally invasively, robotically, or through an open incision on the abdomen.

Other treatment options like hormone therapy and chemotherapy may be recommended if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Advanced Prostate Cancer Care

Our multidisciplinary team of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, urologic oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, nurses, nurse navigators, and social workers work together to provide patients with the most advanced treatment options for prostate cancer. Through our partnership with Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, the state’s only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, patients have access to complex surgical techniques including minimally invasive surgery and robotic prostatectomies, clinical trials, precision medicine, immunotherapy, and innovative radiation therapy procedures, including proton therapy.

To contact one of New Jersey’s best prostate cancer specialists call
844-CANCERNJ or 844-226-2376.




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